6: One Day in the World's Press
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One Day in the World's Press(1)
HUNGARIANS GRATEFUL TO POLES(2)
(Our inf.). Yesterday Drs. Wojciech Wiechno and Henryk Wolf, representatives of our
Health Service staff, returned to Warsaw after a two days' stay in Budapest.
Dr. Gyözö Karas, president of the Hungarian Red Cross, and Dr. Drexler, vice-minister
of health, declared in an interview with our delegates that for the time being they cannot
estimate the total number of killed and wounded. They said, however, that during the first
24 hours of fighting the number of wounded amounted to 1,000 persons, although this number
dropped during the night of October 30 to only 60.
Transport facilities to hospitals are adequate; also there is no lack of health
However, there is a lack of drugs and provisions, but only in Budapest itself -in the
rural areas these shortages do not appear.
The need is above all for morphine, antibiotics, various serums, blood, plasma, X-ray
films, chirurgical needles, and a few other items. All these supplies have to be sent by
air because of their urgent need and transport difficulties. Other drugs can be sent in a
few days when normal railroad communication is reestablished through Czechoslovakia.
Vice-Minister Drexler and Dr. Karas expressed the gratitude of the Hungarian nation to
- [33 (p.3, col. 1/col. 2)] the Ministry of Health and to the Polish Red Cross for their
speedy and effective help. [33 (p.3, col. 2) 155 (p.3, col. 4)]
REPORT ON SITUATION IN HUNGARY(3)
Count Esterhazy in Budapest - Forces opposing restoration of capitalism organized -
Hungarian government retreats before reactionaries
BUDAPEST, November 1 (CTKP)
In Budapest, capital of Hungary, the French news agency announced Thursday morning that
it is not known who is in power in the city and who has control of Hungary. It is said
that at least four "governments" exist, which is well demonstrated by the
confused situation existing in the country. These "governments" are mentioned in
today's "Manchester Guardian," which writes, "Their authority
reaches only as far as their words and weapons are heard."
The French news agency (AFP) also says that further political developments in Hungary
will not include creation of a coalition government, but that open preparations are being
made for a bourgeois dictatorship. This goal is also proved by the request of the
"government" in Raab [Gyor] -which in the last few days was taken over by
counterrevolutionary elements- to substitute Bela Kovacz, landlord and leader of the
Agrarian party, for Imre Nagy as Premier. Kovacz even after 1945 was in contact with the
Fascist organization "Swastika."
According to information from different sources, Count Esterhazy, who after the war was
sentenced to 15 years' imprisonment for his support of fascism, has returned to Budapest.
Esterhazy is a leader of the wealthiest Hungarian nobility, a monarchist, and close [col.
4/col. 5] friend of Cardinal Mindszenty and Otto Hapsburg. Esterhazy came to Budapest so
that he could again take over his estates. Before the land reform in Hungary 115,000
hectares belonged to him (one-fortieth of all the arable land in Hungary) and three
In Austria he owns 60,000 hectares of the best land, and 67,500 hectares in western
The AFP stated that since Thursday evening books are still being burned on the Budapest
streets-among them the works of Tolstoy, Dostoevski, and Pushkin -which were burned by
fascist elements after raiding libraries and bookstores.
On Thursday there also was a reorganization of the government, in which the Council of
Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic dismissed the present Minister of Foreign
Affairs, Imre Horvath, from his office and allocated this function to Imre Nagy, who at
the same time will be the Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
In some parts of Hungary forces are arising, primarily workers, and are fighting with
determination against all reactionary attempts to renew capitalism.
Simultaneously the news arrived that in one village a landlord was killed when he tried
to reclaim his land, which had been allocated to [col. 5/col. 6] farmers during the land
BUDAPEST, November 1 (CTK)
Imre Nagy, in his position as Minister of Foreign Affairs, announced November 1 that
the Hungarian government has declared the Warsaw treaty immediately invalid.
This is another sorry step by the Hungarian government, which gives in to the
reactionary forces in the nation by step ping out of the organization of peace loving,
socialistic nations and taking Hungary on a dangerous journey. This decision was made at a
time when the aggressive forces of imperialism unwisely attacked Egypt, simply because its
people wanted to take advantage of the riches of their country. This gives a welcome
opportunity to foreign reactionary circles to continue supporting those in Hungary who are
definitely rebelling against all the achievements which the workers' class and all
laborers in Hungary achieved during the time when the Soviet Army disposed of landlords
and fascism for the Hungarian people.
Imre Nagy announced this decision to the attache of the Soviet Union in Hungary and
also to others in the office accredited to Budapest, and at the same time announced that
he had asked the United Nations to start negotiations concerning the future status of
Hungary. [55 (p.3, col. 6) /59 (p. 1, col. 1)]
BUDAPEST AWAITS THE DEATH BLOW
From DN's correspondent Bertil Tombera BUDAPEST, Thursday
A revenge-thirsty crowd, cheering and shouting hurrahs at four men about to hang
another, who had just been revealed as a member of the security police, from a lamp post
in the middle of Jugendstrasse; a truck, jammed with teenagers waving their guns and
pistols, rushing by and into a side street where a couple of submachine guns are rattling;
these were the first scenes that met our eyes in desperate Budapest.
Two girls aged 14-15, with a submachine gun each, are checking on the pedestrians in
[col. 1/col. 2] a crosswalk near the Staatspark. A Russian officer with [59 (p. l, col.
2)/67 (p. l0, col. 1)] pistol in hand forces us to surrender a nearly all-exposed roll of
35 mm film because we had been taking pictures of Russian armored cars roaming around
downtown Budapest -in spite of the promises to be out 36 hours ago.
These were some of the episodes we encountered during a 35 minute round trip by car in
the center of Budapest, while the whole city awaits the worst -that the Russian armored
divisions stationed at the border should come anew and drown in blood the thought of
Blood boils anew in the torn city of revolt. The happy feeling of victory coloring the
last few days -when only minor skirmishes took place in the streets, within range of the
flag- and flower-bedecked houses -has disintegrated into an uncertainty which no one can
stand after the past weeks.
Street fights between gun-crazy teenagers and security police who have entrenched
themselves in cellars divide up the city into small islands which are completely isolated
from each other with the exception of sporadic occasions when the telephone for some
unknown cause functions and the lynching that we witnessed was only one of the many.
At the wheel of our auto during the journey sat the Hungarian-born doctor Otto Galambos
of Gothenburg. He was on vacation in his native country when the disturbance broke out and
he plunged immediately into rescue work. He has been the cause of countless, unbelievable
offers [(col. 1/col. 2)] when he has driven his auto which prominently displays a large
Swedish flag past hardened revolutionaries in Budapest, but he perceives that the feeling
among the people has now been whipped by uncertainty to a desperation which has not had
its parallel since the first terror-ridden days of the blood bath.
The Hungarian revolt is a revolt of youth -there was one grisly example after the other
while the auto slowly rolled on through the crowds that surrounded us, screaming and
shouting hurrahs, kissing the flag, and asking us to send greetings to Sweden. With only
several hundred meters' distance between them, groups of armed youths stood in the middle
of the streets and stopped cars. They searched the passengers carefully. Many of the hated
secret police were attempting to flee the city in disguise and it was mainly against them
that the search was directed. The searchers were often thirteen- and fourteen-year-olds
with carbines and ammunition belts and a pistol holster on one hip -both boys and girls.
"We are no longer human; I scarcely dare hope that we will again be after
this," said a desperate young doctor whom we met at the airfield. The lynching in the
afternoon in the heart of the city illustrated his words. When we slowly drove along the
Jugendstrasse, which was called Stalinstrasse before the Revolution, people shrieked at us
to hurry. At the next crossing, however, there was a compact crowd of at least 1,000
people, who upon noticing our Swedish emblem helped to make a place for us to see better.
When they failed, the crowd attempted to describe what was happening. A member of the
secret police in disguise had been recognized by one of the street patrols. The man had no
chance to defend himself; he was grabbed and beaten, shown off to the crowd, which, drunk
with revenge, alternately hurrahed and sang songs of freedom when the rope was placed
around the neck of the unconscious victim, who was strung upon the nearest lamp post.
Those who hurrahed were not only rabble; many well-dressed women and older married
couples were found among the jubilant.
We turned down the nearest side street to avoid the seething crowd, but these streets,
too, were packed with people waiting for something to happen. Curfew had earlier been set
at 4:00 p.m., but today the Nagy government changed the time to 6:00 p.m. The shops were
empty; outside some grocery stores people were continually in a queue but it appeared that
it was mainly to occupy themselves. There were no goods left in the shops.
Still the food situation was better than earlier. Bread rationed to one loaf per day
per household had sufficed for most. For the first time since the Revolution a few
vegetables were seen in the shops in the early morning but the black [col. 2/col. 3]
market has also begun to show
up. It had not been in evidence up to now.
Hunt for hidden secret police
When we suddenly turned the next corner, sharp cries were heard and Doctor Galambos
quickly swerved the auto in a complete turn in the middle of the street in order to avoid
the dangerous neighborhood. We saw two men lying in a doorway shooting at a cellar window
directly opposite. Clearly a hiding place for one of the hated secret police. The common
tactics employed were to have several men pump bullets into the cellar to keep the victim
away from the window until other freedom fighters had drenched some combustible material
in gasoline and tossed it through the window after lighting it -thus burning the nest and
We turned into the Jugendstrasse again. A truck loaded with screeching boys brandishing
pistols in the faces of the pedestrians hurtled past and swung into a side street on the
trail of a new nesting place to destroy. Most of the crowd was assembled nearby in front
of the Soviet Embassy's great stone edifice. We heard a dull chorus of voices repeating
the phrase which was heard on almost every street in every section of the city
"Russians- Go Home!"
Outside the Russian Embassy stood three panzer tanks. The machine guns in the turret
were never still but slowly swung back and forth. Folke Hellberg aimed his Leica through
the automobile window [col. 3/col. 4], and all would have gone well if the crowds on the
sidewalk had not waxed enthusiastic and shouted hurrah for us Swedes. We had to slow down
in order to avoid running down some of the more eager spectators, and at that moment the
car door was torn open and a Russian officer with three stars on his collar drew his
pistol from his holster and pointed it at the camera amid shouts.
Without the crowd the situation might have been easier to explain. But the Hungarians
in the meantime had begun to boo and shriek at the Russian, who became redder and angrier.
They pointed at the Red Cross markings and the Swedish flag, but nothing helped. We could
move the car -we could only secretly hope that a truck loaded with fiery freedom fighters
would appear just at this moment.
Dr. Galambos tried to divert the Russian by talking with him. It was no use. He ripped
open the camera while the crowd pushed closer around the auto. Then the Russian suddenly
went along with Dr. Galambos' proposal: "Take the roll of film." Folke Hellberg
tried to protest, but the pistol and the roar from the crowd and the machineguns on the
panzer tanks on the other side which were now pointed at us and the crowd made us feel
grateful when we were allowed to proceed after our license number had been taken down.
We had driven for thirty-five minutes. Perhaps we had gone five kilometers around a
little district in the city's center. Our goal was actually the center of the old city
where panzer tanks continued to be stationed, but it was impossible to get through. The
skirmishes continued in every part of the city. It felt wonderful when we turned into the
Swedish Embassy's police-guarded gates again. [67 (p.10, col. 4)/59 (p.1, col. 3)]
HELP US! CABINET MOVED TO TEARS
From DN's correspondent Agne Hamrin
Large Russian armored units rolled in today from the borders of both Rumania in
the south and Russia in the east, and a ring of iron was formed around the capital just as
the revolt seemed a definite success.
Complete panic broke out in Budapest. The communist-dominated Premier Imre Nagy tonight
forwarded a dramatic appeal to the Soviet President Marshal Voroshilov in a last resort to
halt the Russian advancement.
He urged Voroshilov to pick the time and place [59 (p.1, col. 3)/68 (p. 11, col. 4)]
for negotiations of withdrawal of the Soviet troops "as soon as possible," and
he appealed to the Soviet leaders to order an immediate halt to the invading Russian
The Russian armored divisions are rolling toward Budapest in an effort to force
Nagy's government to rescind the Hungarian withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact, which gives
away the Russian military situation in Europe.
In an attempt to influence world opinion Nagy proclaimed Hungary as a neutral state and
requested the guarantee of the UN and the four great powers of her neutrality.
"Take up the Hungarian question in the Security Council," he appealed in a
telegram to the UN. After agitated discussions with Russian Ambassador Andropov while
Russian units crossed the boundaries, Nagy declared that Hungary had left the Warsaw Pact,
the communist military union which had formally motivated the Russian divisions' location
in Hungary. A Russian ultimatum that the notice should be revoked was reported later in
DN's foreign correspondent late on Thursday had a conversation with the men closest to
Nagy in the communist government's headquarters in Parliament House. Both Nagy and Zoltan
Tildy had been gripped by panic, they explained.
"Tell the whole world that Hungary now seems to stand on the brink of complete
annihilation," explained Nagy's adjutant. "We have received reports that mighty
Russian columns of troops are marching across the country's borders. A report was recently
brought to us that eight hundred Russian tanks are swarming into the country from Rumania.
They are just now crossing the Peipus [?] River and are using a temporary pontoon bridge.
"Even from the east, from Russia itself, stream the Russian columns in an endless
forward flow to the Hungarian border.
"We shall fight to the last life but are fully aware that the Russians are on
their way to eradicate us. We shall fight from village to village, from house to house
with the heroism born of desperation. Hungary is ours. They may rather take our lives
before our country."
Late on Thursday night unsubstantiated reports came from Budapest that the city was
entirely surrounded by Russian panzer units. There still remained a few small gaps in the
Russian iron chain- the only breathing space for the city of a million people.
Nagy demanded on Thursday morning that the Russian Ambassador in Budapest, Andropov,
should present himself before the Hungarian government in the Parliament Building's
cabinet room. Nagy opened the meeting by declaring that the Hungarian government had
decided to withdraw its membership in the Warsaw Pact. That should certainly imply that
all Russian troops would have to leave Hungarian territory. The question of the Soviet
troops' evacuation of Hungary would not be solved with a lesser action than Hungary's
withdrawal from its [col. 4/col. 5] obligations in opposition to the Warsaw Pact.
This means that the Soviet Union automatically has the right to station a certain
number of troops on Hungarian ground, a privilege which was not affected by those Russian
promises of wanting to leave Hungary.
The meeting with the Soviet Ambassador was broken off, and when it was again resumed a
little later in the morning, the Hungarian government had received information that
Russian troops had pushed into Hungary across the Rumanian border -among other ways on
pontoon bridges over the river boundary between Hungary and Rumania. President Nagy
demanded that the Russian Ambassador explain this action from Moscow.
During the hours-long discussion in the cabinet room the Hungarian government now
fought with the Russian Ambassador over Hungary's remaining or not remaining in the Warsaw
Pact. It appeared as if Moscow had demanded that Hungary withdraw her statements on the
Warsaw Pact. But the government would not be swayed in its decision, and in a dramatic
radio speech on Thursday evening Nagy revealed that the Budapest government had withdrawn
from the Warsaw Pact and had declared her neutrality. The government has even called upon
the four great powers, the U.S.A., the Soviet Union, England, and France, to guarantee
Hungary's neutrality. A similar petition has been sent to UN Secretary General Dag
Hungary has requested that the UN immediately take up the question before the Security
All foreign embassies and legations in Budapest received official notification of
"Help us, help us!"
The government's meeting lasted until 9:00 p.m. on Thursday. In a tense atmosphere
officials declared the government's decision. Tears stood in their eyes. In General
Maleter's headquarters, officers told me that now it was a matter of concern for Hungary's
existence. Will the [col. 5/col. 6] world help us? If the Russian threat is serious, will
they crush us? We have been victorious over 20,000 Russian troops and one hundred tanks in
Budapest, but we cannot hold out alone against the Russian panzer armies. Help us, help
us, they said.
Calm before the storm
Budapest was enveloped in a new storm of panic in the wake of the approaching Russian
panzers, and rumor had the Hungarian capital on Thursday for the first time in nine days
presenting a picture of relative calm. No volleys of bullets were heard any longer, other
than in the continued merciless search for the secret hiding places of the communist
police. And many grocery stores were again open. But other shops, industries, and means of
communication still lay closed down.
The city was bathed in sunshine and crowds of people took the chance once more of going
out in the streets and leaving their hiding places from the most severe days of the
revolt. City dwellers streamed through the city on a quest for something to ea t-searching
after lost goods or trying to find lost relatives. Of the Russian tanks, only a few
charred wrecks were glimpsed; the remainder had the day before completed their evacuation
-and now suddenly they were expected to return in a new and more severe invasion.
But during the day young revolutionaries streamed through the streets singing and
shouting, "Freedom is here!" [68 (p. 11, col. 61/67 (p.10, col. 5)]
POLICE PROTECTION FOR SWEDES IN A HUNGRY BUDAPEST
From DN's Foreign Correspondent, Bertif Tornberg
The fourteen resident Swedes in Budapest, thirteen at the Embassy and the
sixty-five-year-old Anna Sjoblom, who has lived in this revolt-torn city since her youth
and refuses to leave it, had at least as late as Thursday afternoon withstood the direct
attacks on the city.
The three-story stone building which lies on the edge of the Staatspark not far from
the former Stalinplatz houses all the employees and some Hungarian servants and has the
entire time been accorded the greatest respect. Everything having to do with Sweden has
been met with an unbelievable enthusiasm and friendliness in spite of the terror and
desperation, and the Hungarian police, who have been stationed outside the gates since the
revolution began, have seen to it that crowds have never been allowed to collect there.
In the last few days even the Legation has felt the lack of food. Stores had begun to
diminish last week, and one became as saving as possible. A little contribution to their
stores was received on Wednesday when DN's expedition arrived with medical supplies,
bringing several packets of food which their colleagues at the Viennese Embassy had
"We must stay indoors as much as possible -to go out on the streets where machine
gun blasts are heard at regular intervals and stray bullets whistle would be foolish in
the present situation," said Embassy chief Stig Rynell, who has his wife and three
youngest [col. 5/col. 6] children with him at the Legation. Two more infants are also in
the villa -they belong to Rune Ek, and he and his wife Marianne were strongly tempted to
send their children home on the DN plane, but they refrained in the hope that the
situation in this part of the city would not become threatening.
Lord Sigvard Kruuse of Verchou, who lives in the house with his wife Emy, has during
the entire length of the revolt had his mother with him, Lady Frida Kruuse of Verchou.
She came down for a short visit immediately before the revolt broke out and illness
delayed her return until all connections were severed.
The DN plane, the only civil airplane which hitherto had received the rebel
government's permission to land in Hungary became a possible means of transport. There is
one more Swede to be found in the Legation -Margareta Klingspor, a clerk.
Besides the residents there are also some Swedish journalists -how many it is
impossible to say for sure. In addition, Dr. Otto Galambos from Gothenburg, a Swedish
citizen but born in Hungary, is at the moment in the city with his parents.
The Social Democratic party's re-elected leader, Anna Kethly, has left for Vienna to
take part in a meeting with the Socialistic International Bureau, to discuss the new
situation which has arisen in eastern Europe. According to Budapest radio, it is the first
time in nine years that
the Hungarian Social Democratic party has had contact with other lands' Social
Democrats. [67 (p.10, col. 6)/117 (p.1, col. 7)]
GOVERNMENT DELEGATION CONFERS WITH MINDSZENTY(5)
BUDAPEST, Nov. 1
(UP)-The coalition government of Nagy today sent a delegation headed by Zoltan Tildy to
confer with Cardinal Mindszenty. The latter received the delegation in his palace after
recording an address to the nation in which he begged for the re-establishment of peace.
It is said by informative [col. 7/col. 8] palace sources that Mindszenty declared to
the delegation that he was trying to form a Christian democratic party that would have
representation in the cabinet, and that he could not think of supporting the present
government if this were not realized. It is Mindszenty's purpose, according to informants,
that such a party would include all Christians, in other words, Protestants as well as
Catholics. It is believed that the former are no more than 20 per cent of the population
of the country, while Catholics are about 65 per cent.
The Cardinal also indicated that he was disposed to accept a coalition government which
would include the "Hungarian Tito Communists." When asked by the United Press
correspondent if he would personally accept an office in a future government, the prelate
limited himself to answering, "Perhaps." [117 (p. 1, col. 8)]
1. Reprinted from One Day in the World's Press [November 1,
1956], ed. Wilbur Schramm with the permission of the publishers, Stanford University
Press. Copyright 1959 by the Board of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University.
pp.33, 55, 59, 67, 68, 117.
2. Trybuna Ludu (Warsaw), p. 3 (cols. 1-2). Translated by
3. Rudé Právo (Prague), p.3 (cols. 4-6). Translated by V.
4. Dagens Nyhefer (Stockholm), pp. 1 (cols. 1-2) -
10 (cols. 1-4), 1 (col. 3) - 11 (cols. 4-6), 10 (cols. 5-6). Translated by Shirley Strom.
5. La Prensa (Buenos Aires), p. 1 (Cols. 7-8). Translated
by the staff of the Hispanic American Report.
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