Dictionary and Thesaurus
There was very little the Church could do to attack the underlying
problems that had given rise to the popular heresies of the twelfth
century. Innocent III and his immediate successors attacked the symptoms
of these problems, and used the weapons of the Inquisition and the crusade
to crush anti-clericalism and heresy wherever possible. One should note
that the evil reputation of the Inquisition is largely undeserved. In
16th-century Spain, the monarchs gained control of the Inquisition and
used it as a thought police and as a way of attacking enemies who were
guilty of no crimes under secular law. The medieval Inquisition, formally
organized at the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, was a repressive
institution, but was not guilty of the excesses characteristic of the
early modern period.
Bishops had always had the power to question and try alleged heretics in
their episcopal courts, but the Inquisition brought this function under a
single organization that developed a standard procedure and regulations.
Alleged heretics were interviewed at length and, if they were found to
hold beliefs contrary to the "revealed truth" taught by the Church, were
instructed in correct doctrine and allowed to recant (renounce) that
belief and accept the Church's teaching. They were then allowed to go
free, although often required to perform heavy penance. If they were
charged with having returned to their old beliefs, they were subjected to
a much more intensive questioning (although torture was not employed). If
it was found that they had in fact returned to their error, they could be
declared heretics and excommunicated, or expelled from the
community of the faithful. They were then turned over to secular
authorities, and usually imprisoned or executed, the latter often being
done in savage and cruel ways.
Although the Inquisition was in many ways hypocritical and unjust, it was
an effective tool against heretical movements. In the long run, however,
it was an admission of moral failure and buttressed the Church's position
by instilling fear rather than promoting faith. It was a negative
solution. The rise of the mendicant friars provided the positive
answer to the challenge presented by the popular heresies.
His organization took the name of the Order of Preaching Friars and
adopted the Benedictine Rule modified to meet his special aims. The Order
followed the example of the Albigensians and Waldensians. Although its
members took monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, they were
to work in the secular world, traveling about in pairs, preaching in the
vernacular, and -- in order to avoid the suspicion that they represented
the wealth and power of the Church -- to beg their food from the laity.
They were also expected to be learned, and, to achieve this end, Dominic
began to set up training centers and bases from which his followers could
operate. The movement proved quite attractive to men with high ideals,
and, by 1221, there were some sixty Dominican centers in operation.
Since Dominic realized that it was necessary for the Church to keep the
loyalty of the educated classes, Dominicans soon began working within the
new universities, as students themselves, as masters offering their own
courses of study, attracting students, setting up student hospices,
establishing the equivalent of scholarships, and training the next
generation of faculty. Quite soon, Dominicans such as Albertus Magnus and
Thomas Aquinas were gaining the Order considerable respect among the
educated and intellectuals of western Europe.
To sum up, the Dominicans followed an ascetic way of life that did much to
allay middle class suspicions of the Church's apparent preoccupation with
wealth and ostentation. They made an effective appeal to the
intelligentsia, thus strengthening their own Order and strengthening the
loyalty of the educated classes. Their evangelism was quite effective, and
they set a pattern which increased the popularity of the sermon as a tool
of religious instruction and broadened the use of confession in
focusing the Church's attention on the needs of the individual. Their
concern for the common people emphasized the social functions of the
Church at a time when those functions needed greater attention. The
Dominicans eventually came to provide the personnel for the Inquisition,
and contributed a great deal to the discretion and humanity that
characterized that institution in its early days.
As they grew more and more successful, however, the laity began to endow
the Order with more property and wealth. Although they tried to separate
themselves from the management of these possessions, by the end of the
thirteenth century, they were suffering from their own success, had become
wealthy, and were attracting new members more impressed by the Order's
wealth and prestige than its original aims. This was perhaps a result of
the tendency of the Dominicans to consider their practices as means to an
end rather than a good in and of themselves. Consequently, they failed to
develop the intense and all-encompassing ideal of Christian action that
the times required. This achievement was reserved for the Franciscans.
It would not be too sweeping a statement to say that Francis of Assisi
(1182- 1226) embodied the true religious aspirations of the men and women
of thirteenth- century Europe or that he has become the most beloved
figure of the entire medieval period. It is important to realize, however,
that he was also a revolutionary figure and that the Church was
hard-pressed to contain and control the social forces that he inspired. He
was both beloved and quite dangerous.
Francis was born in the north Italian hill-town of Assisi, the indulged
son of a rich silk merchant. He led a more or less wild life, taking the
troubadours and chivalric nobles as his ideals. At the age of twenty, he
left on a military expedition, but fell ill and had to return home. After
recovering, he threw all of his friends a raucous banquet and, after
considerable drinking, led them in an impromptu parade through the streets
of the town. When his friends found that he was missing, they retraced
their steps and found him deep in a trance. He had undergone that sudden
and intense inner conversion that the men and women of the period called
"religion." He began to spend money lavishly in charity to the poor, so
much so that his father took steps to disown him before he could bankrupt
the family. Francis responded by stripping himself naked, giving
everything that he had back to his father, and going into the forest to
live as a hermit in a hut of twigs. He was soon joined by some of his
young drinking- companions and began wondering what God wanted him to do.
In a divination practice common in the period, he opened a Bible three
times to a passage chosen at random. Each time, his finger lit on the
passage "Give all that thou hast to the poor, and follow me."
He and his friends decided that they were suppose to pattern their lives
on Jess and his disciples. After a while, they began to go out from their
mountainside wilderness in pairs like the Albigensians and Waldensians,
preaching and practicing acts of charity. They resolved to own nothing and
the beg jobs in return for their daily meals, making absolutely no
provision for the morrow. They soon found that this abandonment of secular
concerns had given them a great sense of freedom and began experiencing
ecstatic trances and mystic experiences. The pattern of the Franciscan
movement, as embodied in Francis himself, took shape during this
- Service to humanity, particularly the poor and helpless.
- This was, curiously enough, combined with the ideal of the crusade.
Francis believed that they should seek to convert the Muslims rather than
simply fighting them.
- Francis was uninterested in intellectual pursuits. He felt that
religion was a matter of the heart, not of the mind.
- He was imbued with a romantic ideal, considering himself a
troubadour of God and a wooer of Our Lady Poverty.
- He also felt himself to be a part of the natural world, a startling
break with the past tradition of viewing Nature as an enemy to be subdued.
- He did not view humility as an exercise to subdue the sense of self,
but was humble because he felt himself to be humble. Humility was, for
Francis and his followers, a recognition and acceptance of one's self.
- He was a practical mystic, emphasizing the need for personal,
direct and individual union with God.
- His sense of piety was a natural one. His obedience to the Church was
based upon his own lack of interest in theological matters.
- He and his followers were filled with a sense of personal joy that was
evident to all who crossed their paths.
THE GROWTH OF THE FRANCISCANS
In 1209, Francis went to Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) to appeal for
recognition. Innocent doubted that Francis and his followers could follow
the life of poverty they had set out for themselves, but was perhaps
unaware that many people in Europe lived in exactly this fashion. At any
rate, he gave a somewhat vague and oral permission for them to pursue what
they had proposed.
The movement gained force rapidly, and was recognized in 1217 in the
Fourth Lateran Council as the Friars Minor, "little brothers," or
"lesser brothers," perhaps to distinguish them from the Dominicans. They
were given the right to preach, and began to attract great numbers.
Francis's sister, Clara, formed a women's branch, The Poor Clares,
while Francis established The Third Order for people who could not
become Franciscans but wished to live a life as close to that ideal as
possible. In a few years, there were more than 100,000 Franciscans and at
least 500,000 members of the Third Order. The reasons for this growth were
several. Franciscans were expected to take the normal monastic vows, but
did not have to pass through a novitiate (a probationary period,
normally a year, before applicants were allowed to join a monastic order),
and, unlike other orders, they could leave the ranks of the Franciscans
whenever they wished. Then, too, many people lived lives of poverty not
inferior to those of the Franciscans, and, but becoming Franciscans
themselves, they not only gave those lives a sense of purpose and dignity,
but doubtless enjoyed better treatment as Franciscans than they had
experienced as mere homeless indigents.
Nevertheless, others joined who were less attracted to the standards that
Francis had established. The Order had grown so large that it needed
administrators and some of these managers felt that the demands should be
more moderate and that the Order should have the prestige and dignity
enjoyed by the Dominicans and others. In 1220, while Francis was away in
Egypt accompanying the Fifth Crusade, some of these administrators took
control of the movement and began to establish regulations that would have
changed it into something more like the Dominicans. Francis hurried back,
but was able to save the situation only by agreeing to accept the Church's
direction in rewriting the simple Rule that he had established in 1210.
The first steps were that a novitiate had to be established and the right
to leave the Order was abolished. A regular hierarchy was established and
houses, again like those of the Dominicans, were established. University
attendance and teaching were not only allowed, but encouraged. After
having accepted these changes in the Rule of 1223, Francis withdrew from
any position of leadership. When he died in 1226, he left the
Testament, i which he pleaded for the original ideals of the
The Order soon broke into factions, the Spiritual Franciscans
struggled to return the Order to its original conception, while others
tried to moderate the rule of poverty. By the middle of the century, the
Order was headed by John of Parma, a Spiritual who was attuned to the
tendency of his fellows to return to the mysticism of the early days. He
and others faced increasing pressure by Church authorities to moderate the
Order's standards in many areas and to control the preaching of individual
Franciscans more closely. It was a time of increasing class conflict, and
Franciscans, particularly Spiritual Franciscans, were often found
encouraging and supporting the lower classes against the upper classes
favored by the Church. John (and others) responded with mystic tracts that
foresaw the dawning of a new age in which the established order of things
would be overthrown and the promise that Blessed are the meek, for they
shall inherit the Earth would be fulfilled. The Spirituals went too
far with this and several, including John of Parma, were declared
heretics. John was expelled from his position of leadership and
imprisoned. The Order was turned over to Bonaventure and began a steady
course toward more moderate practices and ideals in better harmony with
those of the Church as a whole.
It is tempting to view the early Franciscans as heroes and the Church as
the betrayer of a noble ideal, but the matter is not as simple as that.
The fact is that the population of Western Europe was growing more rapidly
than its production of food, clothing, housing, fuel, and job
opportunities. The Franciscans' voluntary embrace of poverty did nothing
to solve the problem of poverty, and even the greatest degree of
charitable sharing would have done nothing but reduce everyone to hunger
at the same rate. Indeed, a cynic might say that the Franciscans were a
feeble attempt to convince the indigent masses that poverty was fun.
Nevertheless, it was a remarkable part of history. An economist once said
that only a well-to-do society can afford to have charitable ideals. The
Franciscan movement shows that this is not necessarily the case. More than
that, it purchased the unified Church another three centuries of
existence. It also gave the Western tradition an example of self-sacrifice
and concern for the needy that has contributed greatly to our modern
attitudes toward those who fall by the wayside.