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United States History Exam, Revolution to Civil War

Choose the answer that best completes the sentence or sentences.

When the thirteen colonies refused to obey the British constitution, their leaders had to create a new set of basic rules. The first constitution they created, the 1, was adopted during the Revolutionary War and served the emerging nation well until the depression of the 1780s. Nevertheless, influential leaders believed that the central government was too weak and wrote a new set of rules in 1787. One reason they did so was the fear caused by a tax revolt in Massachusetts led by 2. Another reason was the recognition that the existing rules did not give the national government the power to regulate 3, which became clear when state commissioners met to discuss navigation on the Potomac River. The new constitution, written in 4 , in 1787, established a much stronger central government. In order to get it ratified, however, its supporters had to promise a 5 .

1.(1) League of Nations (2) Articles of Confederation (3) Compromise of 1850

2.(1) Daniel Shays (2) Ron Harper (3) Samuel Adams

3.(1) interstate commerce (2) diplomatic relations (3) steamboat construction

4.(1) New York (2) Washington (3) Philadelphia

5.(1) ten point spread (2) Bill of Rights (3) free lunch

Political factions developed quickly during Washington's presidency and later became political parties. The conservative group, led by Washington and Hamilton, called themselves 6 to emphasize their allegiance to the concept of a federal government. Their opponents, followers of Jefferson called themselves 7 to point out that they were not like their "monarchists" rivals. The Jeffersonians wanted most political power kept at the state level. Ironically, Jefferson, as President, increased national power. He violated his stated belief in a strict interpretation of the Constitution when he 8. His fellow party members fought a war, the 9 which encouraged an outburst of nationalism. In 1816, the Jeffersonian party passed a 10 and chartered the second Bank of the United States, both of which Jefferson himself had opposed when Hamilton supported them in the 1790s.

6. (1) Republicans (2) Whigs (3) Federalists

7. (1) Republicans (2) Whigs (3) Federalists

8. (1) purchased the Louisiana Territory (2) ran for a third term (3) shot Aaron Burr

9. (1) War of 1812 (2) Civil War

10. (1) low tariff (2) high tariff (3) football

After the War of 1812, the nation underwent a revolution in its marketing system. Prior to this, most citizens had been engaged in 11 farming. Now, many of them switched to 12 agriculture. The age of specialization had arrived. One of the most important crops, particularly in the South, was 13

11. (1) commercial (2) subsistence (3) peanut

12. (1) commercial (2) subsistence (3) noodle

13. (1) wheat (2) soybeans (3) cotton

Governments 14 this Market Revolution by 15 Court decisions, such as Fletcher v. Peck and Dartmouth v. Woodward, were important in establishing the validity and enforceability of 16, important when one did business with strangers. One of the most important things done by state legislatures to aid private business was to grant charters to create monopolies for the construction of 17 .

15. (1) fought (2) ignored (3) aided

16. (1) giving away land and subsidies to private business (2) heavily taxing private enterprise (3) purchasing the Lookout Mountain

17. (1) Europe (2) football fields (3) canals

One of the unforseen effects of the Market Revolution was the creation of the two-party political system. By 1816, the Federalist Party was practically dead. The Republicans had been more responsive to the people. The Panic of 1819 and the subsequent economic depression created severe hardship in some parts of the nation. Since people had learned that the government, state or national, could aid them, people became interested in how candidates stood on economic issues. Elections became referendums on public policy. Citizens began asking "what will you do for me" rather than "who are you." When a party did not want to answer such a question because it might split the vote, they ran popular candidates who did not take stands on the issues of the day. In 1828, such a candidate was 18; in 1840, such a candidate was 19. To get people to vote and to vote for their candidate, political parties had to create 20.

18. (1)Jefferson (2) Clay (3) Jackson

19. (1) Harrison (2) Hamilton (3) Polk

20. (1) coalitions (2) peanut butter (3) chaos

Another effect of the Market Revolution was to increase sectionalism. Sections (regions) of the country had their differences but specialization increased them. Often, one section could not get everything it wanted without another section being harmed. Agriculturalists wanted 21 tariffs because they wanted to buy imported goods as cheaply as possible; manufacturers wanted 22 tariffs because they did not want to compete against foreign manufacturers. Similarly, the West wanted 23 whereas the South opposed them. Developing regions often wanted soft money and easy credit and thus 24 the Bank of the United States whereas established businessmen wanted economic stability. The American System, proposed by 25, was an effort to give each section something it wanted.

21. (1) low (2) high (3) medium

22. (1) low (2) high (3) medium

23. (1) interval improvements (2) slaves (3) both

24. (1) supported (2) ignored (3) opposed

25. (1) Jackson (2) Clay (3) Calhoun

One of the most important sectional differences was the existence of 26 in the South. In the 1840s and the 1850s, this institution increasingly became the center of controversy. When its existence or extension or both became a 27 issue, compromise was difficult. When the United States annexed 45% of Mexico in 1848, gold was discovered in California, and California demanded immediate statehood in 1850, it was only with great difficulty that Congress passed laws which became known as the 28. Each section was unhappy with parts of the deal but supported the total package as the only way to prevent a civil war.

26. (1) football (2) cotton-3slavery

27. (1) moral (2) frivolous-3international

28. (1) Missouri Compromise (2) Compromise of1850 (3) Bank War

The inability to compromise finally led to the Civil War. In one sense, the war began in 29 in the late 1850s when pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces fought to control the territory. In this state, one saw a clash of two imperialisms, one being 30, the other 31. The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 precipitated a crisis, for he had won 32 of the South.

29. (1) Nebraska (2) Florida (3) Kansas

30. (1) cotton, slavery (2) Russian (3) Federalist

31. (1) Chinese (2) free-soil (3) Italian

32. (1) all the votes (2) none of the votes (3) both of the votes

The 33 won the war, and had to face the problems of reconstructing the nation. Its choices were, essentially, two--34 and 35. It tried both. Under Presidents Lincoln and Johnson, the victor tried 36. Under Congress, it tried 37. Efforts to make the South democratic and prosperous 38. Most Southerners became 39 because there was not enough money, their crops faced severe competition from other nations, and leaders often did not understand what to do to improve the situation or did not know how to do so.

33. (1)Confederacy (2) United States (3) Mexicans

34. (1)conciliation (2) arbitration (3) dropping the atom bomb

36. (1)severing all ties (2) occupation (3) both

36. (1)occupation (2) conciliation (3) mass executions

37. (1)occupation (2) conciliation (3) mass executions

38. (1)succeeded (2) were called the American System (3) failed

39. (1)plantation owners (2) vagabonds (3) tenant farmers

From 1789 until Lincoln took office in 1861, people from the 40 or people who sympathized with that region, dominated the country. The realization that this would no longer be true was one reason for the attempt at secession.

40. (1) North (2) ghettos (3) South