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Murguía, Francisco

    He was poor as a child. He responded to Madero's Plan de San Luis Potosí. He was part of the "Carabineros de Coahuila."  Murguía joined Venustiano Carranza and his Constitutionalist Army when he revolted against Victoriano Huerta for having had Francisco I. Madero and Jesús María Pino Suárez killed. His military career went well as he won victories against the huertista forces. When Carranza's forces took Mexico City, General Murguía was appointed governor and military commander if the state of Mexico. In Congress, he opposed attempts to depose Carranza. In Mexico state, he raised an army of ten thousand men and marched to Michoacán on November 24, 1914, to join forces with General Manuel M. Diéguez. The two armies reconquered Guadalajara from Pancho Villa's army  on January 18, 1915. Murguía fought in battles in Celaya, Trinidad, and León and became known as the "Hero of León." He was decisive in the battle in which Alvaro Obregón lost his arm; his bravery and success earned him the loyalty of  Obregón . As commander of the Second Division of the Northwest, he became the general most feared by the villistas. In 1920, when Obregón  and other generals rebelled against Carranza for trying to impose Ignacio Bonillas as president, forcing Carranza to flee towards Veracruz, Murguía defended the presidential convoys. He was caught and imprisoned in Santiago Tlalteloco. He escaped to the United States and tried to organize an army to avenge the death of Carranza. When he met little success, he crossed the Río Grande with as few men in hopes of recruiting an army.  He had to flee to Tepehuanes, Durango and hide in a church. He was caught and executed in 1922.
    His fame rests as much on his ideas of social justice as anything else.  When Constitutionalist armies took Toluca in August, 1914, Murguía redistributed some haciendas to the peasants (campesinos) and the land on which their houses set to the workers.

Based on Juan López de Escalera, Diccionario Biográfico y de Historia de México. México, Editorial del Magisterio, 1964. pp.751-2

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