1911, The Plan de Ayala.
Liberating Plan of the sons of the State of Morelos, affiliated with the Insurgent Army
which defends the fulfillment of the Plan of San Luis, with the reforms which it has
believed proper to add in benefit of the Mexican Fatherland.
We who undersign, constituted in a revolutionary junta to sustain and carry out the
promises which the revolution of November 20, 1910 just past, made to the country, declare
solemnly before the face of the civilized world which judges us and before the nation to
which we belong and which we call [sic, llamamos, misprint for amamos,
love], propositions which we have formulated to end the tyranny which oppresses us and
redeem the fatherland from the dictatorships which are imposed on us, which [propositions]
are determined in the following plan:
1. Taking into consideration that the Mexican people led by Don Francisco I. Madero
went to shed their blood to reconquer liberties and recover their rights which had been
trampled on, and not for a man to take possession of power, violating the sacred
principles which he took an oath to defend under the slogan "Effective Suffrage and
No Reelection," outraging thus the faith, the cause, the justice, and the liberties
of the people: taking into consideration that that man to whom we refer is Don Francisco
I. Madero, the same who initiated the above-cited revolution, who imposed his will and
influence as a governing norm on the Provisional Government of the ex-President of the
Republic Attorney Francisco L. de Barra [sic], causing with this deed repeated
sheddings of blood and multiplicate misfortunes for the fatherland in a manner deceitful
and ridiculous, having no intentions other than satisfying his personal ambitions, his
boundless instincts as a tyrant, and his profound disrespect for the fulfillment of the
preexisting laws emanating from the immortal code of '57, written with the revolutionary
blood of Ayutla;
Taking into account that the so-called Chief of the Liberating Revolution of Mexico,
Don Francisco I. Madero, through lack of integrity and the highest weakness, did not carry
to a happy end the revolution which gloriously he initiated with the help of God and the
people, since he left standing most of the governing powers and corrupted elements of
oppression of the dictatorial government of Porfirio Díaz, which are not nor can in any
way be the representation of National Sovereignty, and which, for being most bitter
adversaries of ours and of the principles which even now we defend, are provoking the
discomfort of the country and opening new wounds in the bosom of the fatherland, to give
it its own blood to drink; taking also into account that the aforementioned Sr. Francisco
I. Madero, present President of the Republic, tries to avoid the fulfillment of the
promises which he made to the Nation in the Plan of San Luis Potosí, being [sic, siendo,
misprint for ciñendo, restricting] the above-cited promises to the agreements of
Ciudad Juárez, by means of false promises and numerous intrigues against the Nation
nullifying, pursuing, jailing, or killing revolutionary elements who helped him to occupy
the high post of President of the Republic;
Taking into consideration that the so-often-repeated Francisco I. Madero has tried
with the brute force of bayonets to shut up and to drown in blood the pueblos who ask,
solicit, or demand from him the fulfillment of the promises of the revolution, calling
them bandits and rebels, condemning them to a war of extermination without conceding or
granting a single one of the guarantees which reason, justice, and the law prescribe;
taking equally into consideration that the President of the Republic Francisco I. Madero
has made of Effective Suffrage a bloody trick on the people, already against the will of
the same people imposing Attorney José M. Pino Suárez in the Vice-Presidency of the
Republic, or [imposing as] Governors of the States [men] designated by him, like the
so-called General Ambrosio Figueroa, scourge and tyrant of the people of Morelos, or
entering into scandalous cooperation with the científico party, feudal landlords, and
oppressive bosses, enemies of the revolution proclaimed by him, so as to forge new chains
and follow the pattern of a new dictatorship more shameful and more terrible than that of
Porfirio Díaz, for it has been clear and patent that he has outraged the sovereignty of
the States, trampling on the laws without any respect for lives or interests, as has
happened in the State of Morelos, and others, leading them to the most horrendous anarchy
which contemporary history registers.
For these considerations we declare the aforementioned Francisco I. Madero inept at
realizing the promises of the revolution of which he was the author, because he has
betrayed the principles with which he tricked the will of the people and was able to get
into power: incapable of governing, because he has no respect for the law and justice of
the pueblos, and a traitor to the fatherland, because he is humiliating in blood and fire
Mexicans who want liberties, so as to please the científicos, landlords, and bosses who
enslave us, and from today on we begin to continue the revolution begun by him, until we
achieve the overthrow of the dictatorial powers which exist.
2. Recognition is withdrawn from Sr. Francisco I. Madero as Chief of the Revolution
and as President of the Republic, for the reasons which before were expressed, it being
attempted to overthrow this official.
3. Recognized as Chief of the Liberating Revolution is the illustrious General
Pascual Orozco, the second of the Leader Don Francisco I. Madero, and in case he does not
accept this delicate post, recognition as Chief of the Revolution will go to General Don
4. The Revolutionary Junta of the State of Morelos manifests to the Nation under
formal oath: that it makes its own the plan of San Luis Potosí, with the additions which
are expressed below in benefit of the oppressed pueblos, and it will make itself the
defender of the principles it defends until victory or death.
5. The Revolutionary Junta of the State of Morelos will admit no transactions or
compromises until it achieves the overthrow of the dictatorial elements of Porfirio Díaz
and Francisco I. Madero, for the nation is tired of false men and traitors who make
promises like liberators and who on arriving in power forget them and constitute
themselves as tyrants.
6. As an additional part of the plan we invoke, we give notice: that [regarding] the
fields, timber, and water which the landlords, científicos, or bosses have usurped, the
pueblos or citizens who have the titles corresponding to those properties will immediately
enter into possession of that real estate of which they have been despoiled by the bad
faith of our oppressors, maintaining at any cost with arms in hand the mentioned
possession; and the usurpers who consider themselves with a right to them [those
properties] will deduce it before the special tribunals which will be established on the
triumph of the revolution.
7. In virtue of the fact that the immense majority of Mexican pueblos and citizens
are owners of no more than the land they walk on, suffering the horrors of poverty without
being able to improve their social condition in any way or to dedicate themselves to
Industry or Agriculture, because lands, timber, and water are monopolized in a few hands,
for this cause there will be expropriated the third part of those monopolies from the
powerful proprietors of them, with prior indemnization, in order that the pueblos and
citizens of Mexico may obtain ejidos, colonies, and foundations for pueblos, or fields for
sowing or laboring, and the Mexicans' lack of prosperity and wellbeing may improve in all
and for all.
8. [Regarding] The landlords, científicos, or bosses who oppose the present plan
directly or indirectly, their goods will be nationalized and the two third parts which
[otherwise would] belong to them will go for indemnizations of war, pensions for widows
and orphans of the victims who succumb in the struggle for the present plan.
9. In order to execute the procedures regarding the properties aforementioned, the
laws of disamortization and nationalization will be applied as they fit, for serving us as
norm and example can be those laws put in force by the immortal Juárez on ecclesiastical
properties, which punished the despots and conservatives who in every time have tried to
impose on us the ignominious yoke of oppression and backwardness.
10. The insurgent military chiefs of the Republic who rose up with arms in hand at
the voice of Don Francisco I. Madero to defend the plan of San Luis Potosí, and who
oppose with armed force the present plan, will be judged traitors to the cause which they
defended and to the fatherland, since at present many of them, to humor the tyrants, for a
fistful of coins, or for bribes or connivance, are shedding the blood of their brothers
who claim the fulfillment of the promises which Don Francisco I. Madero made to the
11. The expenses of war will be taken in conformity with Article II of the Plan of
San Luis Potosí, and all procedures employed in the revolution we undertake will be in
conformity with the same instructions which the said plan determines.
12. Once triumphant the revolution which we carry into the path of reality, a Junta
of the principal revolutionary chiefs from the different States will name or designate an
interim President of the Republic, who will convoke elections for the organization of the
13. The principal revolutionary chiefs of each State will designate in Junta the
Governor of the State to which they belong, and this appointed official will convoke
elections for the due organization of the public powers, the object being to avoid
compulsory appointments which work the misfortune of the pueblos, like the so-well-known
appointment of Ambrosio Figueroa in the State of Morelos and others who drive us to the
precipice of bloody conflicts, sustained by the caprice of the dictator Madero and the
circle of científicos and landlords who have influenced him.
14. If President Madero and other dictatorial elements of the present and former
regime want to avoid the immense misfortunes which afflict the fatherland, and [if they]
possess true sentiments of love for it, let them make immediate renunciation of the posts
they occupy and with that they will with something staunch the grave wounds which they
have opened in the bosom of the fatherland, since, if they do not do so, on their heads
will fall the blood and the anathema of our brothers.
15. Mexicans: consider that the cunning and bad faith of one man is shedding blood
in a scandalous manner, because he is incapable of governing; consider that his system of
government is choking the fatherland and trampling with the brute force of bayonets on our
institutions; and thus, as we raised up our weapons to elevate him to power, we again
raise them up against him for defaulting on his promises to the Mexican people and for
having betrayed the revolution initiated by him, we are not personalists, we are partisans
of principles and not of men!
Mexican People, support this plan with arms in hand and you will make the prosperity
and well-being of the fatherland.
Ayala, November 25, 1911
Liberty, Justice, and Law
Signed, General in Chief Emiliano Zapata; Generals Eufemio Zapata, Francisco Mendoza,
Jesús Morales, Jesús Navarro, Otilio E. Montaño, José Trinidad Ruiz, Próculo
Capistrán; Colonels Felipe Vaquero, Cesáreo Burgos, Quintín González, Pedro Salazar,
Simón Rojas, Emigdio Marmolejo, José Campos, Pioquinto Galis, Felipe Tijera, Rafael
Sánchez, José Pérez, Santiago Aguilar, Margarito Martínez, Feliciano Domínguez,
Manuel Vergara, Cruz Salazar, Lauro Sánchez, Amador Salazar, Lorenzo Vázquez, Catarino
Perdomo, Jesús Sánchez, Domingo Romero, Zacarías Torres, Bonifacio García, Daniel
Andrade, Ponciano Domínguez, Jesús Capistrán; Captains Daniel Mantilla, José M.
Carrillo, Francisco Alarcón, Severiano Gutiérrez; and more signatures follow. [This] is
a true copy taken from the original. Camp in the Mountains of Puebla, December 11, 1911.
Signed, General in Chief Emiliano Zapata.
From John Womack, Jr, Zapata and the Mexican Revolution (New York: Vintage
Books, 1968, 400-404). Reprinted by permission. This document was coded by Marc Becker. Please report any errors, typos, or
other suggestions to firstname.lastname@example.org.