Effingham County's [Georgia] Historical Archaeological Resources
By Daniel T. Elliott,
Secretary and Research Associate,
LAMAR Institute, Inc.
Effingham County, Georgia, is fortunate to have an abundant historical archaeological
resource base that has unique qualities that attract global interest. Sites associated
with the eighteenth century Salzburger community are particularly noteworthy. Many
archaeological sites have been discovered in the past 15 years that are associated with
the Salzburger and other German settlements at Ebenezer. The gem in the cap of Effingham
County's archaeological wealth is the colonial town of New Ebenezer, also known as
archaeological site 9Ef28. New Ebenezer has been visited by two U.S. Secretaries of State,
Stewart Udall and Bruce Babbit. Secretary Udall, who visited the site in the 1960s, was so
impressed with New Ebenezer that he considered it eligible to the National Register of
Historic Places (NRHP) as a National Landmark.
Effingham County has been home for people for the past 12,000 years or more. Scattered
finds of distinctive Paleoindian projectile points are reported from at least two sites
near the Savannah River (Fish 1976:19). Sites from the later Archaic (8000-1000 B.C.) and
Woodland periods (1000 B.C.-A.D. 900) abound throughout the county. Sites from the
Mississippian period (A.D. 900-1540), while present in Effingham County, are fewer than
sites of earlier periods. Several sites associated with historically identified Native
American groups, particularly Creek and Yuchi cultures, are found in key areas of the
county. Perhaps the most dramatic cultural manifestation witnessed in Effingham County was
the arrival of the Salzburgers in 1734. The Salzburgers settled in the eastern side of the
county in what was then the frontier of British North America. Several dozen of their
farmsteads, in addition to the town site of New Ebenezer, have been identified. By the
middle 1700s the Salzburger yeoman farmsteads gave way to a planter class. Several large
plantation sites, including the Davis and Wylly plantations have been identified
archaeologically, and these sites exhibit significant potential for archaeological and
historical research (Smith 1986; Elliott 1990). Sites of other important plantation are
also known but historical research has not yet been completed (Elliott 1992a). Small
farms, owned by non-Salzburgers, are more prevalent in the western parts of Effingham
County (Elliott et al. 1994; Elliott 1992a). Sites from the late nineteenth and early
twentieth century are also abundant in Effingham County, but few have been assessed for
their NRHP eligibility. The archaeological resources in Effingham County span a diversity
of human history that is of international interest. This document presents a review of
previous archaeological studies in Effingham County, that review is followed by a research
design for managing the historical archaeological resources through a focused program of
future archaeological research.
History of Research
A total of 239 archaeological sites is presently recorded in Effingham County, Georgia,
in the official state site files (as of June, 1998). This represents less than one percent
of the archaeological sites that have been recorded in the state of Georgia. It also
represents a small fraction of the undiscovered archaeological sites in the county. The
first archaeological sites in Effingham County were recorded in the 1960s but it was not
until the mid-1970s with Paul Fish's landmark study of prehistoric settlement that the
archaeological resources of Effingham County were studied in earnest (Mitchell 1975, Fish
1976). Fish examined 108 aboriginal and historical sites in Effingham and Screven counties
in the Ebenezer Creek watershed for the Soil Conservation Service. Eighty-eight of these
sites were in Efffingham County. Fish noted a positive correlation between sites in the
Ebenezer Creek watershed and Lakeland sand type soils, particularly for Archaic period
Only a handful of sites in the county, however, have been studied beyond the survey
phase. Most of the sites that have received more in-depth excavation have demonstrated
significant potential for research and many of these were recommended as eligible for
nomination to the NRHP. As of June, 1998, however, only five places in Effingham County
were actually listed in the Register: Ebenezer Townsite and Jerusalem Lutheran Church;
Effingham County Courthouse; Guyton Historic District; New Hope AME Church, Guyton; and
the Reiser-Zoller Farm, Springfield. Of these five National Register properties, only New
Ebenezer (9Ef28) has an identified archaeological component. It was not until 1976 that
New Ebenezer received NRHP status and the site was recorded as a prehistoric surface
scatter in the state files that same year by Paul Fish. The New Ebenezer town site was not
investigated for its archaeological potential until 1987 (Elliott 1988). Jerusalem Church
also was recorded in the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) in 1936, as was the
Scientific study since the middle 1980s by the LAMAR Institute, Historic Effingham
Society, Georgia Salzburger Society, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, several
private archaeological consulting firms, and others, have demonstrated the research
potential of a variety of archaeological sites in Effingham County, including many sites
related to the colonial Salzburger settlement. Simultaneously, historical research and
translations of many eighteenth century German documents pertaining to the settlement
serves to enhance the value of these archaeological resources. Wise use of this
archaeological resource base, which would include a planned approach of heritage tourism
of interpretive historical destinations, conservative management of the resources, and
scientific and historical research on selected sites, could significantly benefit the
people of Georgia and Effingham County.
The German speaking colonists, generally known as the Salzburgers, who settled the
Ebenezer colony on the lower Savannah River, in what was to become Effingham County,
arrived in 1734 and established the town of Ebenezer. After two grueling years (March,
1736) the town was relocated to a more easily provisioned site, on a bluff overlooking the
Savannah River. This new town was called New Ebenezer. Excellent historical summaries of
the Salzburger colony are found in published works by George Fenwick Jones (see for
example, Jones 1984, 1990).
By the fall of 1737 many farmsteads had been established on the Mill Creek bluff (also
known as Abercorn Creek) This area became known as the Mill District of New Ebenezer after
several lumber and grist mills were established. By 1752 the Salzburgers had outgrown
their bounds and expanded north of Ebenezer Creek to establish the Bethany settlement.
Other minor settlements included Goshen, Abercorn, and Halifax. Of these, Halifax was the
only settlement outside present day Effingham County. The Salzburgers occupied
approximately 25 square miles on the eastern side of Effingham County. Their settlements
were administered with a strong religious element, which until the mid 1760s was dominated
by their religious and secular leader Johann Martin Boltzius. After Boltzius' death, the
Lutheran congregation of Ebenezer began to fragment. This situation was exacerbated by the
political unrest of the American Revolution, so that by 1782 most of the colonial
Salzburger settlements were abandoned. Although many of their descendants continue to
reside in the area, the area never again attained the cultural solidarity that had
characterized the first 30 years of the colony. By 1800, New Ebenezer, Abercorn, Bethany,
and the Mill District were essentially ghost towns. The abandonment of these areas was,
however, has been a blessing for latter day archaeologists, because it resulted in their
survival as undisturbed archaeological sites.
Archaeological study of Effingham County's historical resources began in 1984 in
advance of the construction of the Fort Howard (now known as Fort James) recycled paper
mill on Abercorn Creek. Survey and test excavations conducted by Garrow & Associates
resulted in the identification of more than a dozen important early colonial farmstead
sites in the Mill District. This work was documented in a series of contract reports and
was summarized in a presentation to the Society for Historical Archaeology (Elliott and
Mitchell 1984; Elliott 1984; Elliott and Smith 1985; Smith 1986; Elliott 1986, 1987).
Rather than destroy these important resources, the Fort Howard Paper Company took steps to
preserve the significant historic sites as green spaces. As a result these sites remain
available for scientific study today. This pioneering work on the Ebenezer Mill District
established a framework from which later studies of the town of New Ebenezer developed.
Research investigations at New Ebenezer began in 1987 when an archaeological survey of
a major portion of the town was conducted by the LAMAR Institute, Inc., a nonprofit
organization for public education and research on archaeology (Elliott 1988, 1989a and b).
This survey was requested by the property owner, the Kessler New Ebenezer Trust. Although
the New Ebenezer site had been listed in the NRHP since 1976, little was known of its
archaeological resources. The initial survey was followed by two seasons of test
excavation and additional survey work in 1989 and 1990 by the LAMAR Institute (Elliott and
Elliott 1990b, 1991). Excavations were conducted on four town lots and on one public
From 1992 to 1998, the LAMAR Institute archaeologists, in alliance with Elderhostel,
Inc., the Georgia Salzburger Society, the Kessler New Ebenezer Trust, the New Ebenezer
Retreat Center, Jerusalem Lutheran Church, and Georgia Southern University, have continued
to survey and test excavate portions of the New Ebenezer town site (Elliott 1995). Other
reports on this work are currently in preparation. To date, slightly more than 100 square
meters of the site have been hand excavated. This archaeological work allows for
significant insight into the lifestyles of the colonial Salzburgers. The areas that were
sampled include the silk filature, a tavern, and the house lots of a blacksmith and
locksmith, a shipwright, and a carpenter. Because the excavations at New Ebenezer were
conducted using similar methods with the early work by Garrow & Associates at the Mill
District, these data allow a preliminary comparison of colonial life in two different
areas of the Ebenezer settlement. Additional Elderhostel field investigations are
scheduled for November, 1998 and Spring, 1999 at New Ebenezer.
Recently other work in Effingham County has been conducted by the LAMAR Institute
through several sponsors. A small survey grant from the Georgia Department of Natural
Resources, awarded to the LAMAR Institute in 1989, resulted in the reconnaissance
investigation of nine early colonial settlements in Effingham and Chatham counties,
Georgia. This project included initial visits to Abercorn, Bethany, and Old Ebenezer, as
well as additional investigations of New Ebenezer, Ebenezer Mill District, and Mount
Pleasant (Elliott 1990). Test excavations were conducted by the LAMAR Institute, in
cooperation with Effingham County, the Historic Effingham Society and the Georgia
Salzburger Society, at Bethany cemetery in 1989 and 1990 (Elliott and Elliott 1989). This
important cemetery was "lost" and the area had returned to woodlands.
Archaeological investigations, coupled with the historical research efforts of Rev.
Raymond Davis and Milton Rahn, resulted in the relocation of the cemetery. Twenty-two
graves have been identified at Bethany as a result of this effort.
Other recent archaeological work in Effingham County on "non-Salzburger"
historic sites includes survey and test excavation in 1989 and 1990 by the LAMAR Institute
at Mount Pleasant (Elliott and Elliott 1990, 1997; Elliott 1991a, 1992b), and the West
Effingham project. The Mount Pleasant community includes at least five archaeological
sites. The most noteworthy is Site 9Ef169, which is a multi-component site that included a
Yuchi village, a deerskin trader's outpost, and a Georgia Ranger garrison (ca. 1739-1758).
Intensive survey and limited test excavations were conducted at 9Ef169. Investigations of
other sites in the Mount Pleasant community was limited to reconnaissance level efforts.
The West Effingham project was a systematic surface survey of approximately 689 acres
in western Effingham County conducted by the LAMAR Institute, under sponsorship by the
Historic Effingham Society (Elliott 1992a). This study resulted in the location of 30
archaeological sites. Many of the sites identified by this study exhibited research
potential and may be eligible for listing in the NRHP. The NRHP eligibility potential of
these sites was not addressed in this study. This study is noteworthy becaused it focused
on areas of Effingham County that were not settled by Salzburgers and it provides a
glimpse of non-German adaptations in the Ogeechee River section.
Garrow & Associates surveyed an electric transmission line corridor for the Georgia
Power Company that crossed Effingham County (Garrow 1984). Their survey located many sites
in the county and one of these was tested for its potential eligibility for listing in the
NRHP. At a site in northern Effingham County, Kathy Manning explored aboriginal use of a
Carolina Bay environment (Garrow et al. 1984; Finch and Manning 1985). Although this
particular site was found to have limited research potential, it was an investigation of
an important site type that has long been recognized by amatuer archaeologists who are
familiar with southern Georgia.
Recent survey for an industrial park southeast of Springfield, Georgia by Garrow &
Associates resulted in the location of one site, 9Ef238, which was deemed potentially
eligible for listing in the NRHP (Jones 1995). This site contained a suspected colonial
Salzburger house farmstead. Additional testing of this site was recommended by Jones.
Georgia Southern University's excavations at a site in western Effingham County, led by
Sue Moore, uncovered a historic grave, which was determined to be that of an eighteenth
century settler (Sue Moore personal communication, 1992).
Survey in 1993 and 1994, and test excavations in 1994 for the Georgia Department of
Transportation, Highway 21 widening project were conducted by Southeastern Archaeological
Services and New South Associates. No potentially significant sites were identified in the
southern section of the highway project, described in Elliott (1993), but the northern
section yielded one potentially significant site in Effingham County (Elliott 1994).
Subsequent excavations at 9Ef98 revealed intact features from a late eighteenth and early
nineteenth century farmstead and this site was deemed potentially eligible for listing in
the NRHP (Elliott et al. 1994).
Several other surveys in Effingham County have yielded negative results for potentially
eligible sites. Several surveys were conducted by Brockington and Associates for Savannah
Electric and Power Company's Plant McIntosh near the Savannah River (Gardner and Gaddy
1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 1991d, Gardner and Markham 1993). No potentially eligible sites were
identified in their study areas. Unfortunately, this section of the county was extensively
disturbed by previous construction at Plant McIntosh. Two surveys for the U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers for Savannah River channel modifications both yielded negative results for
potentially eligible sites (Michie 1978; Blick et al. 1994). Survey near Rincon by
Armstrong State College yielded no NRHP eligible sites (Julie Barnes personal
communication 1988). Bloom (1990) conducted a survey for Garrow & Associates for a
proposed Oglethorpe Power Company transmission line from Egypt to Dover but identified no
potentially eligible sites. Survey by the Chicora Foundation for the expansion of the
Silverwood housing development identified no NRHP eligible sites. These studies with
negative findings demonstrate that not all of Effingham County abounds in important
archaeological sites and that these important resources are not homogeneously distributed
over the landscape.
A Preliminary Design for Future Historical Archaeological Research
Previous research has clearly demonstrated that unique and significant archaeological
resources, associated with the Georgia Salzburgers and others, exist in several parts of
Effingham County, Georgia. Only a small fraction of the county, however, has been
inventoried for archaeological sites and many potentially productive areas of Effingham
County remain to be surveyed. The distribution of important archaeological sites is not
evenly spread across the county.
Previous survey in the Bethany settlement was restricted to surface reconnaissance and
a few limited shovel tests. Additional survey in wooded areas of Bethany should prove
productive. None of the sites located in Bethany thus far, other than the Bethany
cemetery, have been examined by test excavation or intensive shovel testing programs. A
representative sample of early historical sites in the Bethany area should be surveyed
more intensively and selected sites test excavated and assessed for their eligibility for
listing in the NRHP.
The Mill District contains many known archaeological sites with Salzburger components,
including more than a dozen that have been tested. Most of the sites that were recommended
as potentially eligible for listing in the NRHP have not received any evaluative test
excavation. Other potential archaeological sites in the Mill District, not included in the
Fort James paper mill studies, await discovery. Survey of lands, particularly south of
Dasher Creek, should be conducted to define the horizontal extent of the Mill District
The steady march of urban development has exacted a heavy toll on the archaeological
resources associated with the Goshen settlement. The tiny Goshen church and cemetery stand
out as an island in a sea of asphalt. Archaeological survey data is urgently needed in
this section of the county. Only limited archaeological study has been conducted in this
area, which consisted of a systematic surface collection at site 9Ef94 by amateur
archaeologist, Elliott O. Edwards, Jr. No intensive surveys or excavations have been
conducted in the Goshen vicinity.
Previous archaeological research at Abercorn is extremely limited. Only a small section
of the original town site was surveyed by the LAMAR Institute and none of the town has
been examined by test excavation. Only one archaeological site was recorded in Abercorn
area. This site contained the remains of a small Revolutionary War era redoubt, or small
earthen fort, which was manned by Beamsley's Grenadiers, a British army unit. The site
also contains domestic evidence of colonial homes, but information about these sites is
sketchy at present.
Survey at Old Ebenezer also has been limited in scope and the location of the original
townsite is not confidently established (Babits 1982; Elliott 1990). Although the site of
the original mill at Old Ebenezer is known, the actual first town site location of the
Salzburger colonists (ca. 1734-1736) remains unidentified (Klingelhofer 1976). The high
probability areas where Old Ebenezer was situated should be examined by intensive
archaeological survey. If the remains can be identified, then limited test excavations
should be conducted to determine the preservation state and research potential of these
resources. Despite its obvious historical significance, Old Ebenezer is presently not
listed in the National Register of Historic Places. This site, if it can be positively
located, should be nominated as a National Register Landmark.
Archaeological excavation and survey is scheduled to continue at the New Ebenezer site.
Funding for this work is quite limited, however, and additional sources of revenue are
being sought to finance this research. Efforts should be launched to change the National
Register status of this site from a National Register site to a National Register Historic
Landmark. The site, and Old Ebenezer as well, may also be eligible for nomination as World
Additional survey is needed along the Ebenezer Creek corridor. High ground (bluffs)
adjacent to water are likely locations for important aboriginal and early historic
settlements. Several Revolutionary War fortifications are known to exist in this vicinity
but have not yet been recorded. Many Salzburger plantation sites also are likely located
along unsurveyed portions of Ebenezer Creek.
Previous study of the western section of Effingham County, along the Ogeechee River,
has been extremely limited. Additional survey is needed and potentially significant sites
that have been recorded by Fish (1976) and Elliott (1992a) should be evaluated by
intensive shovel testing and test excavation of selected sites. Study of this section of
the county is particularly important because it contains non-German colonial and early
Federal Period sites, which can serve to balance the findings from the German dominated
Savannah River valley portions of the county.
Potential Sources of Funds
Archaeological research is a costly endeavor. Expenses include salaries and wages for
the archaeologists and their assistants, field housing, transportation vehicle costs, and
equipment rental or purchase. For every day spent conducting archaeological fieldwork,
archaeologists should plan to spend two days in laboratory analysis and interpretation.
Laboratory costs, in addition to salaries and wages, include laboratory and equipment use,
computers, photography, report production costs, and supplies.
Previous archaeological studies in Effingham County were funded by several diverse
sources. Most projects fell under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act,
which mandated the expenditure of project funds for federal, federally assisted, or
federally regulated projects affecting significant cultural resources. These Section 106
related projects are expected to continue in Effingham County over the next decade and
these will be effectively self funding. Several drawbacks concerning these projects should
be noted. This work is performed by Cultural Resource Management (CRM) companies, who are
highly competitive. Consequently, the work often varies in quality and can be biased by
the research interests of those conducting the project. These projects generally lack any
coordinated research strategy, other than generic research goals mandated by National Park
Service or state guidelines. Section 106 projects cannot address all of the archaeological
research needs of Effingham County since most of the land in the county is privately owned
and most future development projects will not require any Section 106 action.
Recently, the State of Georgia enacted the Georgia Environmental Protection Act (GEPA),
which mandates the inclusion of archaeological research for state funded projects. To
date, however, few archaeological projects, have been funded as a result of this
legislation, and we are aware of none that have been conducted under these auspices in
Effingham County. If properly implemented, however, this legislation could prove to be
another source of funds for archaeological research.
Salzburger-related research by the LAMAR Institute has been primarily privately funded
with grant money, except for two small grants were provided by the Georgia Department of
Natural Resources. Since 1987 the LAMAR Institute has pursued grant funding from a variety
of federal, state, and private sources and this funding effort is ongoing. The LAMAR
Institute's research has attempted to fill a portion of the void not covered by federally
funded (Section 106) projects.
Potential sources of state funds for archaeological research include: the ISTEA grant
program, administered by the Georgia Department of Transportation, and Heritage 2000
grants, historic resource survey grants, and National Register nomination grants
administered by the Historic Preservation Division Georgia DNR. The Effingham County
government is presently pursuing some of these avenues of funding, which should include
archaeological components in the proposed projects (Bron Cleveland personal communication,
Ideally, money invested in Effingham County's archaeological resources could be
returned as a dividend by marketing the county as a destination for eco-tourism. The most
obvious archaeological candidate as a tourist destination is New Ebenezer. This site, and
its related settlements, have the potential to draw tourists in the same way as other
interpretive history sites on the eastern seaboard, such as Old Salem in North Carolina,
St. Augustine in Florida. If properly developed through careful archaeological excavation,
interpretation, and reconstruction, the Ebenezer settlement could ultimately rival
Williamsburg, Virginia. Hopefully, a program of focused archaeological research will
enable Effingham County to claim its rightful position as one of the gems in the crown of
Georgia's Colonial Coast.
Effingham County has a diverse archaeological record, whose value is obvious to the
professional archaeology community, but not widely recognized by the general population of
Effingham County and Georgia. This document provided a concise summary of the previous
archaeological research that has been conducted in the county. It also provides a
preliminary research design for future studies of the archaeological resources that
remain, including both known and unknown.
Babits, Lawrence. 1982. Unpublished notes on excavations at Old Ebenezer. On file,
LAMAR Institute, Royston, Georgia.
Blick, Jeffrey P., Terry Lolley, and Stephen R. James, Jr. 1994. Cultural Resources
Survey of Cuts 3 and 4, Lower Savannah River Environmental Restoration, Effingham County,
Georgia and Jasper County, South Carolina. Panamerican Consultants, Tuscaloosa,
Alabama. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District, Savannah, Georgia.
Bloom, Jonathan. 1990. Cultural Resources Survey for the Proposed Egypt to Dover
Transmission Line, Effingham County, Georgia. Garrow & Associates, Atlanta.
Oglethorpe Power Corporation, Tucker, Georgia.
Elliott, Daniel T. 1984. Archaeological Reconnaissance of a Proposed Industrial
Development Tract in Effingham County, Georgia. Garrow & Associates, Atlanta,
Georgia. Submitted to Law Engineering, Marietta, Georgia.
______1986 Recent Research in the Ebenezer Settlement, Effingham County, Georgia. Paper
presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Savannah,
______1987 The Ebenezer Mill District. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Historic Effingham Society, Springfield, Georgia.
______1988 Ebenezer: Alpine Village in the Georgia Swamp. Ebenezer
Archaeological Report Series, Number 1, LAMAR Institute, Watkinsville, Georgia and Georgia
Salzburger Society, Rincon, Georgia.
______1989 Ebenezer Town Lots and Their Values. Ebenezer Archaeological Report
Series, Number 3. Georgia Salzburger Society, Rincon, Georgia.
______1989 New Ebenezer: An Alpine Village in the Georgia Swamp. Paper presented at the
Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Baltimore, Maryland.
______1990 The Lost City Survey. Archaeological Reconnaissance of Nine
Eighteenth Century Settlements in Chatham and Effingham Counties, Georgia. LAMAR Institute
Publication Series 19. LAMAR Institute, Watkinsville, Georgia.
______1991a Ye Pleasant Mount: 1989 and 1990 Excavations. LAMAR Institute
Publication Series 11. LAMAR Institute, Watkinsville, Georgia.
______1991b Lost and Found: Eighteenth-Century Towns in the Savannah River Watershed. Early
______1992a West Effingham Survey. LAMAR Institute Publication Series 17.
LAMAR Institute, Watkinsville, Georgia.
______1992b Archaeological Sites at Mount Pleasant, Georgia. Ms. on file, LAMAR
Institute, Watkinsville, Georgia.
______1995 The Parsonage Relocation Survey. LAMAR Institute Publication Series
34. LAMAR Institute, Watkinsville, Georgia.
Elliott, Daniel T., and Rita F. Elliott. 1989. Bethany Cemetery Effingham County,
Georgia. Ebenezer Archaeological Report Series 2. Georgia Salzburger Society, Rincon,
______1990a Mount Pleasant: An Eighteenth-Century Yuchi Indian Town, British Trader
Outpost, and Military Garrison in Georgia. LAMAR Institute, Watkinsville, Georgia.
______1990b The Lost Diary of Rupert Schrempff, Locksmith, as told through the
Historical and Archaeological Record at Ebenezer, Georgia. Ebenezer Archaeological
Report Series, Number 4. Georgia Salzburger Society, Rincon.
______1991 Seasons in the Sun: 1989 and 1990 Excavations at New Ebenezer, Effingham
County, Georgia. LAMAR Institute Publication Series 15 and Ebenezer Archaeological
Report Series, Number 5. LAMAR Institute, Watkinsville, Georgia.
______1997 The Yuchi Village at Mount Pleasant. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting
of the Society for American Archaeology, Nashville, Tennessee.
Elliott, Daniel T., and Ruthanne L. Mitchell. 1984. Archaeological Potential of
Land Tracts in Effingham County, Georgia and Jasper County, South Carolina: A Preliminary
Archives and Literature Synthesis. Garrow & Associates, Atlanta. Submitted to Law
Engineering Testing Company, Marietta, Georgia.
Elliott, Daniel T., and Marvin T. Smith. 1985.Final Report on Archaeological Survey
of the Proposed Fort Howard Paper Company Effingham County Tract. Garrow
& Associates, Atlanta. Submitted to Law Enviornmental Services, Marietta, Georgia.
Elliott, Rita F. 1993. Archaeological Survey of SR 21 From Sylvania to Shawnee,
Effingham and Screven Counties, Georgia. New South Associates, Stone Mountain.
Submitted to Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta.
______1994. Cultural Resources Survey of Georgia Highway 21 Widening, Effingham
County, Georgia. Southeastern Archeological Services, Athens, Georgia. Submitted to
Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta.
Elliott, Rita F., Jannie Loubser, and Mary Beth Reed. 1994. Archaeological Testing
of Sites Along the SR 21 Expansion Corridor, Effingham and Screven Counties, Georgia.
New South Associates, Stone Mountain. Submitted to Georgia Department of Transportation,
Finch, Dennis, and Kathy Manning. 1985. Archaeological Testing of Cultural Resource
Properties, GP-Bur-13 and GP-Ef-08 in Burke and Effingham Counties on the Proposed
Vogtle-Effingham-Thalmann Electric Transmission Line. Garrow & Associates,
Atlanta. Georgia Power Company, Atlanta, Georgia. University of Georgia Report 738.
Fish, Paul R. 1976. Patterns of Prehistoric Site Distribution in Effingham and
Screven Counties, GA. University of Georgia, Laboratory of Archaeology, Research
Report Number 11. Athens.
Gardner, Jeffrey W. and L. L. Gaddy. 1991a. Archaeological, Historical and
Biological Assessment of the Plant McIntosh Railroad Corridor, Effingham County, Georgia.
Brockington & Associates, Atlanta. Submitted to Georgia Power Company, Atlanta.
______ 1991b. Archaeological and Historical Evaluation of the Plant McIntosh
Combustion Turbine Site, Effingham County, Georgia. Brockington & Associates,
Atlanta. Submitted to Georgia Power Company, Atlanta.
______1991c. Archaeological and Historical Evaluation of the Plant McIntosh
Combustion Turbine Site (2), Effingham County, Georgia. Brockington & Associates,
Atlanta. Submitted to Georgia Power Company, Atlanta.
______1991d Archaeological and Historical Evaluation of the Plant McIntosh
Combustion Turbine Site (3), Effingham County, Georgia. Brockington & Associates,
Atlanta. Submitted to Georgia Power Company, Atlanta.
Gardner, Jeffrey W., and M. Virginia Markham. 1993. Archaeological Evaluation of
Three Sites in the Proposed McIntosh Pipeline Corridor, Effingham County, Georgia. Brockington
& Associates, Atlanta. Submitted to Georgia Power Company, Atlanta.
Garrow, Patrick H., editor. 1984. Cultural Resources Survey for the Proposed
Vogtle-Effingham-Thalmann Electric Transmission Line, Burke, Screven, Effingham, Chatham,
Bryan, Liberty, Long, McIntosh, and Glynn Counites, Georgia. Resource Inventory II: Final
Report. Garrow & Associates, Atlanta. Georgia Power Company, Atlanta.
Jones, David. 1995. Intensive Cultural Resources Survey of the Proposed Effingham
County Development Authority Industrial Park, Effingham County, Georgia. Garrow &
Jones, George Fenwick. 1984. The Salzburger Saga. University of Georgia Press,
______1990. The Georgia Dutch. University of Georgia Press, Athens.
Klingelhofer, Timothy. 1976. Unpublished Bicentennial Research Grant Proposal to
Conduct Excavations at the Old Ebenezer Mill. On file, LAMAR Institute, Royston, Georgia.
Michie, James.1978. An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Widening and Cutoff of
Specific Areas on the Savannah River and the Channel Modification of Oates Creek, Augusta,
Georgia. South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Columbia, South
Carolina. University of Georgia Report 266.
Mitchell, William W. 1975. An Archaeological Field Study of the Eli Whitney
Watershed, Effingham and Chatham Counties, Georgia. Department of Anthropology,
University of Georgia., Athens. Soil Conservation Service. University of Georgia Report
Smith, Marvin T., compiler. 1986. Testing of Sixteen Sites for the Fort Howard
Paper Company, Effingham County, Georgia. Garrow & Associates, Atlanta. Submitted
to Law Environmental, Kennesaw, Georgia.